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The hoof impact force is around 2 tonnes at racing speed. At 14 inch depth the force is spread over about 10 times the hoof area and that provides a reduced stress sufficent that even soft soil can support the load. Unless the track never gets watered then it is unlikely to be less depth than this even in a dry weather period.
York, with its high water table and soft subsoil is an example where the slightest overwatering to a surface that superficially looks dry turns the track going into a bog. Conversely, the clerks sometimes call Newmarket good-soft because of a superficially wet surface but it is firmer below (well drained chalk) and with the higher suport level the going is more consistent.